Sunday, October 18, 2009

How to install .deb files using dpkg

How to install .deb files using dpkg

How to install winrar for Linux

How to install winrar for Linux

Install file splitter for Linux.

Install file splitter for Linux.

How to change Linux root password temporarily.

How to change Linux root password temporarily.

“World’s first” 3D camera launched by FUJIFILM

“World’s first” 3D camera launched by FUJIFILM

Tuesday, July 21, 2009

FIX : Unable to open pty: No such file or directory

While trying to SSH or enter into a VPS from the node, you may get the following error :

Unable to open pty: No such file or directory


root@tip~]# vzctl enter 900
enter into VE 900 failed
Unable to open pty: No such file or directory

There is a temporary and permenant fix for this issue.

Temporary Fix :-

Execute the following commands from the node

vzctl exec VEID /sbin/MAKEDEV pty

vzctl exec VEID /sbin/MAKEDEV tty

vzctl enter VEID

Where VEID is the VPS id.

Permanent Fix :-

First temporarly fix the issue and enter into the VPS.

1) vzctl enter VEID

2) Edit the file /etc/rc.sysinit of the VPS

vi /etc/rc.sysini

3) Search for the line /sbin/start_udev and comment it


4) Add the following two lines under /sbin/start_udev

/sbin/MAKEDEV tty
/sbin/MAKEDEV pty
Logout from your VPS (Ctrl d)

5) Reboot the VPS and you are done!

vzctl restart VEID

Thursday, June 18, 2009

Migrating to a Domain

My title

page contents

My new Blog under construction: Visit :

Saturday, May 23, 2009

How to enable log rotation on Linux ?

logrotate is a program which will automatically backup your old log files and gzip them. You can specifiy how often logrotate should backup your logfiles and how long it should keep them. The advantage of logrotation is that you can save disk space without the deletion of log files. The logrotation can be configured for automatic rotation, compression, removal, and mailing of log files.

The default configuration file is /etc/logrotate.conf

# see "man logrotate" for details
# rotate log files weekly

# keep 4 weeks worth of backlogs
rotate 4

# create new (empty) log files after rotating old ones

# uncomment this if you want your log files compressed

# RPM packages drop log rotation information into this directory
include /etc/logrotate.d

# no packages own wtmp -- we'll rotate them here
/var/log/wtmp {
minsize 1M
create 0664 root utmp
rotate 1

# system-specific logs may be also be configured here.

Service or server specific configurations stored in /etc/logrotate.d directory, for example here is sample apache logrotate configuration file:
less /etc/logrotate.d/httpd

/var/log/httpd/*log {
rotate 52
/sbin/service httpd reload > /dev/null 2>/dev/null || true
Now you need to set a cronjob for the logrotation to run. crontab -e

00 00 * * * /usr/sbin/logrotate -s /home/humanlinux/config/logrotate.status

Cron ensures that the command runs at midnight everyday. The command has three parts. /usr/sbin/logrotate is the path to logrotate. The -s /home/humanlinux/config/logrotate.status option specifies where logrotate keeps its status information. This file has to be writeable by the user running the cron.

run the command /usr/sbin/logrotate -f /etc/logrotate.conf to begin the log rotation

Thanks & Regards

How to create a shutdown button on a Linux desktop.

A shutdown button can be created on a Linux desktop using a single lined script.

Open your favorite text editor

eg : vi shutdown or
: gedit shutdown

append the following lines


save and quit. Move the file location to your desktop

chmod 777 shutdown
chmod +x shutdown (made the file 'shutdown' executable)

Now double click on your 'My Computer" icon to open the file browser window.

goto Edit-->Preferences-->Behavior-->Run executable text files when they are clicked-->close

Now you can double click on the 'shutdown' file to shutdown the machine. You can rightclick on it to choose an appropriate icon for the button.

Friday, May 15, 2009

How to assign swap area in Linux to increase speed?

We can assign swap area in linux either on a partition or a file.

I am creating here swap area using a file.

First we need to create the swap file.

dd if=/dev/zero of=/swapfile bs=1024 count=2000000

this will create a file 'swapfile' under / of size above 2gb

Type the following commands :-

mkswap /swapfile

swapon /swapfile

Now we can add the swap entry on fstab so that on every reboot, system will automatically loads the awap area.

vi /etc/fstab

append the following line to the bottom

/swapfile  swap  swap  defaults  0 0

save and quit

To see the swap usage use the command top 

thanks & regards

Thursday, May 14, 2009

How to reset the lxadmin password?

What if the password of lxadmin is lost? 

We can reset the lxadmin password using the following commands.
Login to the server using ssh

1)  cd /usr/local/lxlabs/lxadmin/httpdocs 

2) /usr/bin/lphp.exe ../bin/common/resetpassword.php master

3)  type your new password.

4) After that login to lxadmin at https://xx.xx.xx.xx:7777/ (xx.xx.xx.xx is your server IP address) using username : admin and password :  your new password.

thanks & regards

How to put the grub password in linux!

In Linux anyone can reset the root password from single usermode . So it is considered as a security fault if the machine is public. There comes the importance of putting the grub password, so that only admin is allowed to login if the machine is rebooted.

Here are the steps to put the grub password.

1) open the command prompt and type the following commands

2) grub

3) md5crypt

4) type the password

5) copy the encrypted password generated

6) Ctrl c

7) vi /boot/grub/grub.conf

8) paste the following line just above the 'title'

password --md5 "encrypted password here"

9) save and quit. Done.

I have give the sample grub file here.


password --md5 %&mkj89(*$*J)$OO*=*

title CentOS (2.6.18-92.el5)
root (hd1,8)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.18-92.el5 ro root=LABEL=/ rhgb quiet
initrd /boot/initrd-2.6.18-92.el5.img


thanks & regards

Saturday, May 9, 2009

How to install flash player on centos/redhat linux !

This post can also answer the question " how to fix the firefox error on centos/redhat linux" 

Installing the flash player on centos/redhat linux seems to be very difficult sometimes. But the installation is quite simple :). The flash player may not be installed automatically using firefox. While trying install firefox, you may get the error following error " Firefox could not install this item because "install-0zr..rdf" (provided by the item) is not well-formed or does not exist. Please contact the author about this problem."The Screeshot of error is provided. To fix this issue, you need to upgrade/install certain libraries using yum. I have mentioned the commands below.

1. First you need to install those libraries (.i386 and .x86_64):

yum install curl compat-libstdc++-33 glibc nspluginwrapper

2. Once done with the libraries, we need to download the flash player rpm.

mkdir flash

cd flash

download the rpm inside the folder flash.

click here to Download

3. Next we need to execute the command below to install the rpm. This command should be executed inside the folder, where the rpm is downloaded. Ours is in the folder 'flash'.

rpm -ivh flash-plugin-

(replace with the version of rpm you have downloaded)

4. Close the Firefox and restart it. You should be able to see the flashes hereafter.

thanks & regards

Thursday, May 7, 2009

How to browse files in an ISO image?

Its always easy to do things using the command lines in Linux. To browse files of an ISO image is an easy task in Linux. Open a terminal window and type in the following commands.

sudo mkdir /media/iso

sudo modprobe loop

sudo mount filename.iso /media/iso -t iso9660 -o loop

cd /media/iso

Hereafter you will be able to navigate to the /media/iso folder and see the contents of the ISO image. To unmount the ISO, use the following command:

sudo umount /media/iso

I will explain the commands and options used specificly:

sudo modprobe loop  ->loads/ installs the module for loopback file system support

iso9660  -> the file system used by CD roms

-t  -> specify the file system type

-o loop  -> for additional options while using a loopback filesystem

thanks & regards

How to change the default text editor in ubuntu!

In ubuntu , the default text editor for editing the configuration files may be nano. For eg: to set a cronjob crontab -e , the configuration file opens up with the nano text editor. But we can set the default text editor as our favourite editor by using a simple command.

update-alternatives -- config editor

once this command is entered, it asks to enter the no: of our favourite editor. eg:

humanlinux@localhost:~# update-alternatives --config editor


There are 3 alternatives which provide `editor'.

Selection Alternative
1 /usr/bin/vim.tiny
2 /bin/ed
*+ 3 /bin/nano

Just enter the corresponding no: of your favourite editor.
Here i have choosed 1.

Press enter to keep the default[*], or type selection number: 1
Using '/usr/bin/vim.tiny' to provide 'editor'.

thanks & regards

Tuesday, May 5, 2009

how to install csf in ubuntu / linux servers!

CSF instllation in ubuntu / linux servers!

CSF is a firewall that can be installed on linux based severs to enhance the security. It can be installed even on a server based on cPanel. It can be configured to find out hacking attempts through ssh etc. Can be used for ip whitelisting and blacklisting.

The csf instllation is quite easy. Just follow the documentation I have given below.

1)Create a folder 'csf'

mkdir csf
cd csf

2)Download the csf into this directory and instal.

tar -xzf csf.tgz
cd csf

3)Now we need to test whether we have the required iptables modules in the system

perl /etc/csf/

you may get a result like this
root@humanlinux-desktop:/home/hlinux/Downloads/csf/csf# perl /etc/csf/
Testing ip_tables/iptable_filter...OK
Testing ipt_LOG...OK
Testing ipt_multiport/xt_multiport...OK
Testing ipt_REJECT...OK
Testing ipt_state/xt_state...OK
Testing ipt_limit/xt_limit...OK
Testing ipt_recent...OK
Testing ipt_owner...OK
Testing iptable_nat/ipt_REDIRECT...OK

RESULT: csf should function on this server

Don't worry if you cannot run all the features, so long as the script doesn't
report any FATAL errors

4)You should not run any other iptables firewall configuration script. For
example, if you previously used APF+BFD you can remove the combination (which
you will need to do if you have them installed otherwise they will conflict

sh /etc/csf/

5)That's it. You can then configure csf and lfd by edit the files
directly in /etc/csf/*, or on cPanel servers use the WHM UI

csf installation for cPanel is preconfigured to work on a cPanel server with all
the standard cPanel ports open.

csf installation for DirectAdmin is preconfigured to work on a DirectAdmin
server with all the standard DirectAdmin ports open.

csf auto-configures your SSH port on installation where it's running on a non-
standard port.

csf auto-whitelists your connected IP address where possible on installation.

You should ensure that kernel logging daemon (klogd) is enabled. Typically, VPS
servers have this disabled and you should check /etc/init.d/syslog and make
sure that any klogd lines are not commented out. If you change the file,
remember to restart syslog.

See the readme.txt file for more information.

Webmin Module Installation/Upgrade:-

To install or upgrade the csf webmin module:

Install csf as above
Install the csf webmin module in:
Webmin > Webmin Configuration > Webmin Modules >
From local file > /etc/csf/csfwebmin.tgz > Install Module

Uninstallation of CSF :( :-

Removing csf and lfd is even more simple:

On cPanel servers:

cd /etc/csf

On DirectAdmin servers:

cd /etc/csf

On generic linux servers:

cd /etc/csf

un-installation Completed


thanks & regards

Sunday, May 3, 2009

Baseline Monitoring for troubleshooting in Linux!

The Baseline Monitoring is useful in :-

  • troubleshooting
  • essential for healthy systems
  • help plan for further growth
  • can aide with security

A good baseline monitoring of systems is very helpful in troubleshooting. A good baseline of system activity and use can be used to compare when a system appears to be behaving erretically, or more activity to report when a system is operating outside of specified parametres.

It can aslo be used to tighten the security. As we can build up trends for our systems and networks over time, using these we can more easily spot events outside of the norm which could be attempts to gain access to our systems or a rogue system already under the control of external influences.

Deciding what to monitor is very dependant on the work that a system does. For database servers or file servers then disk space, service availability and load might be important. For a desktop system we might justcheck to see that its up and running.

Data gained from longer monitoring can be used outside of the purely technical. We can use it to measure the growth of system load over time, and to predict when a new server of file store might be required. We can use to how improvements made are impacting service availability and therefore helping work flow and numerous others.

thanks & regards

Get free Ubuntu stickers ! :)

Get ubuntu stickers for free! All you need to do is to mail a self addressed stamped envelope to your local address:  The addresses for different countries are give here!


Ubuntu Sticker Offer
Av. Maipu 2259 PB C
ZIP: 1636
Buenos Aires

Thanks to the Ubuntu Argentina Team!


Sticker Offer
P.O Box 1412
Lavington, NSW 2641

Thanks to the Ubuntu Australia Team!


Powered by Ubuntu - stickers 
p/a Lange Vesting 100
8200 Brugge

Thanks to the Ubuntu Belgium Team!


Rolando Espinoza La Fuente
Calle 16 de Julio #424 / Zona Central 
Cochabamba, Cochabamba

Thanks to the Bolivian Ubuntu LoCo Team!


Comunidade UbuntuBR
A/C Etiquetas Ubuntu
Av. Rui Barbosa, 2095 cj63
Santana - Sao Jose dos Campos/SP
CEP: 12211-000

Thanks to the Ubuntu Brazil Team!


Ubuntu Sticker Offer
2448 Cadboro Bay Rd.
Victoria BC
V8S 4C1

Thanks to the Ubuntu Canada Team!


Stickers Ubuntu Chile
Arlegui #573 E-11
Viña del Mar

Thanks to the Ubuntu Chile Team!


Javier A Miranda R 
Carrera 118Bis N°89A-26
Int. 4, Apto. 102 
Bogota, DC -111011

Thanks to the Colombian Ubuntu Team!


105, rue de l'Ourcq
75019 Paris

Thanks to the French Ubuntu Team!


Thanks to the German Ubuntu Team!


Ubuntu Hungarian LoCo Team
ORY Mate
H-1163 Budapest
Gordonka u. 32.

Thanks to the Hungarian Ubuntu Team!


Baishampayan Ghose
214/4, Sher-e-Punjab Society
Andheri (E), Mumbai --- 93

Thanks to the Ubuntu Indian LoCo Team!


Palma Salvatore
Via Magna Grecia, 14
87029 Scalea (CS)

Thanks to the Italian Ubuntu LoCo Team!


Stickers Ubuntu
Avenida Adolfo Lopez Mateos Condominio 1 Casa 41
Fraccionamiento Rancho San Lucas
Metepec, Mexico
CP: 52172

Thanks to the Mexican Ubuntu LoCo Team!


Ubuntu Stickers
Hyacintstraat 13
4587 AV Kloosterzande
The Netherlands

Thanks to the Dutch Ubuntu Team!

New Zealand

Ian Beardslee c/o C/- Catalyst IT 
PO Box 11053
Manners St
Wellington New Zealand

Thanks to the New Zealand Ubuntu Team!


Ubuntu Stickers Scandinavia
c/o FreeCode AS 
Nydalsveien 30 B 
0484 OSLO

Thanks to the Norwegian Ubuntu Team!


Gonzalo L. Campos Medina
Av. Peru K-134 / Urb. Garibaldi

Thanks to the Peruvian Ubuntu Team!


Ivan Jelic
Bore Stefanovica 2/1
36000 Kraljevo

Thanks to the Serbian Ubuntu Team!


Stichwort: Ubuntu-Stickers
c/o Ruben Richiger
Dietlistrasse 2
9000 St. Gallen

Thanks to the Swiss Ubuntu Team! 


Ubuntu Stickers
B.P. 57 Monastir République
5060 Monastir

Thanks to the Tunisian Ubuntu Team! 


Atila Sendil
Bilgi Sistemleri Md.
Korfez / Kocaeli

Thanks to the Turkish Ubuntu Team!

United Kingdom

The Linux Emporium
Bridge House
17a Maybrook Road
Sutton Coldfield
B76 1AL UK

Thanks to the United Kingdom Ubuntu Team!

United States

System76, Inc. (Free Stickers)
1582 S. Parker Rd. Ste. 310
Denver, Colorado 80231


Nathalie Colina
Calle Dabajuro
Casa # 4
Urbanizacion El Señorial
Puerta Maraven 
Punto Fijo, Estado Falcón

Thanks to the Venezuelan Ubuntu Team!


thanks & regards

Thursday, April 30, 2009

How to monitor a system remotely using conky?

How to monitor a linux machine remotely using conky or just an "easy way"!

Here are the steps to remotely monitor a linux machine using conky. The example here is done on an Ubuntu Box.

1)Install conky on the system(remote server/system) you need to monitor

sudo apt-get install conky

2)Then install the "xauth" program onto the system(remote server/system) tunneling X (file server)

sudo apt-get install xauth

3)Then we have to edit the ssh server side file /etc/ssh/sshd_config and make sure "X11Forwarding yes" is enabled

4)Then from your local system , you can log into the remote system via SSH with the -X flag. Example:

ssh -X username@

the user name should be the user of the (remote server/system)

5)once you are logged-in to the remote system, just type conky on the command prompt. You will be able to see the services like:-

  • uptime
  • frequency
  • RAM usage
  • SWAP usage
  • CPU usage
  • Processes
  • File systems:
  • Networking:
  • and currently running processes of the remote system
All in GUI on your local system. Happy Monitoring :)

thanks & regards

Fixing Opera error in Ubuntu!

Is your Opera browser not working on your ubuntu desktop?. Then this post may help you.

In some cases when we click on the opera icon , it wont respond. And if we type 'opera' in the terminal it shows the following error.

human@localhost:~$ opera 

ERROR: object '' from LD_PRELOAD cannot be preloaded: ignored.
ERROR: object '' from LD_PRELOAD cannot be preloaded: ignored.
/home/human/lib/opera/9.64/opera: error while loading shared libraries: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

This happens when some libraries get corrupted ,broken or missing.To fix this just do the following steps.

1)human@localhost:~# sudo apt-get install libqt3-mt

If you get the following message

"You might want to run `apt-get -f install' to correct these:

The following packages have unmet dependencies:

  libqt3-mt: Depends: libaudio2 but it is not going to be installed

E: Unmet dependencies. Try 'apt-get -f install' with no packages (or specify a solution)."

2)then execute the following comand
human@localhost:~# sudo apt-get -f install

It will automatically install the needed packages and the issue must be fixed by now.

thanks & regards

Sunday, April 26, 2009

How to install AIDE?

What is AIDE:-

AIDE (Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment) is an intrusion detection program. It is a free replacement for Tripwire.It can find out any changes made on the system binaries, libraries, header files , and configuration files etc by "comparing" regularly with the database of these files which was made at the time of its instllation.

How Does AIDE works:-

Once AIDE is installed, It creates a database of the files specified in AIDE’s configuration file. The AIDE database stores various file attributes like permissions, inode number, user, group, file size, mtime and ctime, atime, growing size, number of links and link name. AIDE also creates a cryptographic checksum or hash of each file using message digest algorithms like sha, md5, rmd160, tiger etc. Also acl, xattr and selinux can be used if enabled during compile time.This databse is created before the server/system is bought into the network.The AIDE should be installed to the system before it is exposed to the internet.

So Initially the administrator need to create an AIDE database on a new server before it is setup for networking eg hosting.This AIDE database is an excat summary of the Linux system before it is bought into the network.This database(db) will hold information about system binaries, libraries, header files etc that are expected to remain the same throughout.Suppose someone has broken-into the system, though it is easier to manipulate file dates, sizes etc, it will be quite difficult for him to manipulate cryptographic checksum like md5. Thus by rerunning AIDE after a break-in, the administrator can quickly identify changes to files with high degree of accuracy.

How to Install AIDE in UBUNTU?

1)You need the root access to install AIDE:- sudo su -

2)Install These prerequisites (packages) for AIDE:

GCC compiler for C : apt-get install gcc byacc
GNU Flex : apt-get install flex
GNU Bison : apt-get install bison
GNU Make : apt-get install make
Mhash library : apt-get install libmhash2 libmhash-dev
PostgreSQL Development Library : apt-get install postgresql-server-dev-8.3

Some of the above packages maybe already installed on your box, in that case when you execute the above commands it shows " 0 upgraded".so need not worry about that packages.

Or else you can check manually whether the packages are installed or not by using the follawing command: dpkg –get-selections | grep gcc

If the result is : gcc-4.3  install
then gcc is installed otherwise if you get no output ,then it means that gcc is not installed.

3)Once all the packages are installed then download aide from here . The downloaded packaege will be zipped in tar.

4)Create a folder 'downloades' and extract the tar achieve into this folder using the command: tar -xzvf aide-x.xx.x.tar.gz (replace x with version number)
Now you wil get the folder aide-x.xx.x
goto that folder by: cd aide-x.xx.x
Then execute the following commands :

make install
make clean

5)NOw you need to open the aide configuration file and determine the location where the aide database is stored. Go to that location

6)To initialise the database perform:
aide -i
mv aide.db

7)Now we can check wether the AIDE works by using the following command:-

8)Configuration of AIDE
AIDE has its config file located inside (if installed via package management software like synaptic, config file is /etc/aide/aide.conf) /usr/local/etc/aide.conf .
And it’s default executable is located inside /usr/local/bin/aide.

9)Explanation of the aide.conf file
location of the database to be read (This is the database taken as benchmark)
location of the database for –compare is read (This is not present by default and is used only when we have to compare two distinct databases.)
location of the database to be written

10)Useful Commands
aide -C : Performs a check on the filesystem ? (also same as: aide)
aide -i : Initialises or creates the benchmark database supplied by database_out directive (here it is
aide -u -c /etc/aide.conf : update the database and use the specified config file

Before putting one’s server into the network, the admin will have to save a secure configuration of the system by:

aide -i
mv aide.db

The second command transfers the server’s earlier state(aide.db database) with the new one( So be careful when you do this. It is advisable to keep a backup of the earlier database.
Next time in-order to check for any break-in perform
aide -C
To compare the current database with some earlier backed-up database, give the path of the backed-up database to database_new option in aide.conf and perform:
aide –compare
The task of saving the old database and comparing with a new one has to be done periodically (preferably daily with the help of a cron task).

Reference Links

thanks & regards

Wednesday, April 22, 2009

Antivirus For Linux!

These days I was dealing with some security related packages. I had gone through the changes to be made on IPTABLE to enhance the firewall, and a little bit about SELinux.I came to know about ClamAV, an anti-virus package for Linux..

Clam AntiVirus (ClamAV) is a free, cross-platform antivirus software tool-kit. One of its main uses is on mail servers as a server-side email virus scanner. The application was developed for Unix and has third party versions available for AIX, BSD, HP-UX, Linux, Mac OS X, OpenVMS, OSF and Solaris.

ClamAv has the following features!

  1. a command line scanner
  2. automatic database updater
  3. scalable multi-threaded daemon
  4. running on an anti-virus engine from a shared library
  5. a Milter interface for sendmail
  6. on-demand scanning
  7. supports many document formats, including Microsoft Office, HTML, Rich Text Format and Portable Document Format.
  8. It also support for Zip, RAR, Tar, Gzip, Bzip2, OLE2, Cabinet, CHM, BinHex, SIS formats, most mail file formats, ELF executables and Portable Executable files compressed with UPX, FSG, Petite, NsPack, wwpack32, MEW, Upack and obfuscated with SUE, Y0da Cryptor.

The ClamAV virus database is updated several times each day and as of 25 December 2008 contained 479,371 virus signatures.

Latest Stable Release:

Latest ClamAV® stable release is: 0.95.1
Total number of signatures: 545288
ClamAV Virus Databases:
main.cvd ver. 50 released on 15 Feb 2009 16:47 :0500
daily.cvd ver. 9274 released on 22 Apr 2009 13:17 :0400 (on 04/23/09)

Download the production quality stable release here

Download the latest virus database:

main.cvd ver. 50 released on 15 Feb 2009 16:47 :0500
daily.cvd ver. 9274 released on 22 Apr 2009 13:17 :0400

How to install clamAV in Debain ?

The Debian packages are maintained by Stephen Gran. ClamAV has been officially included in the Debian distribution starting from the sarge release. Run apt-cache search clamav to find the name of the packages available for installation.

You can also use one of the Debian volatile repositories to keep your ClamAV installation updated on your system.

Always choose the mirror near to you.
Edit /etc/apt/sources.list and add a line like this to it:


deb etch/volatile main contrib non-free

Then run apt-get update and apt-get install clamav
If you need clamd, you may also want to run apt-get install clamav-daemon

How to install clamAV in Ubuntu?

The Ubuntu packages are maintained by Ubuntu MOTU Developers. ClamAV has been officially included in the Ubuntu distribution since the first Ubuntu release. Run apt-cache search clamav to find the name of the packages available for installation.

The released set (release, *-updates, and *-security) are patched for security updates. Following extensive testing of clamav and the packages that use it in the backports repository, they may be updated to a newer version. These are official Ubuntu packages and supported by community developers.

The Ubuntu backports repository will contain the newest clamav version that has been at least lightly tested to work with that version. These packages can be installed by enabling the backports repository in your system. These are official Ubuntu packages and supported by community developers.

How to install calmAV in Redhat/Fedora ?

Two very good repositories are maintained by Dag Wieers dag at wieers*com:

and Oliver Falk:

FC devel:
FC 3:
RedHat 8.0:

How to install clamAV in Mandriva ?

Official Mandriva packages for cooker and supported updates (2006.0 and newer) are maintained by Oden Erikkson. For updates, use the software package manager or urpmi:


urpmi—update—auto clamd

Unofficial packages for current and several older Mandriva distributions are maintained by Bill Randle and are available from his web server.

How to install clamAV in SuSe ?

Official SuSe packages for clamAV are maintained by Reinhard Max.

You can get it from here .

Thanks & regards

Sunday, April 19, 2009

Open Source antivirus - ClamWare .

ClamWin is free, open source antivirus software for Microsoft Windows,(dont worry you can run it on Ubuntu using Wine).I Liked ClamWin because , it is OpenSource and also its PORTABLE. Yes, it has a portable version that can be used from a USB flash drive. Scan baby Scan!!!

some of the features of ClamWin are:

  1. Standalone virus-scanner
  2. Scanning scheduler.
  3. Automatic virus database updates on a regular basis.
  4. Context menu integration for Windows Explorer.
  5. Add-in for Microsoft Outlook.
  6. And is portable that can be used from a USB flash drive :)
  7. Extensions availabe to scan file that are downloaded.
  8. Addin to Microsoft Outlook to remove virus-infected attachments automatically.
  9. Standalone virus scanner and right-click menu integration to Microsoft Windows Explorer

The latest version of Clamwin Free Antivirus is 0.95.1.Please note that ClamWin Free Antivirus does not include an on-access real-time scanner. You need to manually scan a file in order to detect a virus or spyware.ClamWin Free Antivirus is based on ClamAV engine and uses GNU General Public License.

Portable ClamWin on a USB or Removable Drive:

Follow this guide to make your own portable ClamWin

You can take ClamWin Free Antivirus with you on a USB pen drive, CD or DVD

1)Install ClamWin on a host PC with Windows XP or higher

2)Copy all the files from "c:\program files\clamwin" to a "clamwin" folder on a removable drive. unins000.exe and unins000.dat files are not needed

3)Copy the following files:
from "c:\program files\clamwin\bin\Microsoft.VC80.CRT" to the "clamwin\bin" folder on your removable drive.

4)Copy this ClamWin.conf (right-click to Save) file to "clamwin\bin" folder on the removable drive (note Standalone=1 setting)

5)Create the folowing foldres on the removable drive:

6)Copy the database files (main.cvd and daily.cvd) from your database directory on the host PC (default location is "C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\.clamwin\db") to the "clamwin\db" folder on the removable drive.

That's it, you can now run clamwin.exe from clamwin folder on your removable drive.

It may take a while to load ClamWin.exe depending on the removable drive speed
If you use ClamWin Free Antivirus on a read-only drive (CD or DVD) your need to burn the latest database before use and won't be able to change preferences.

Tip: Click here to see the list of some portabe softwares.

thanks & regards

Saturday, April 18, 2009

nagios installation steps!

Nagios is a popular open source computer system and network monitoring software application. It watches hosts and services, alerting users when things go wrong and again when they get better.Nagios, originally created under the name NetSaint, was written and is currently maintained by Ethan Galstad, along with a group of developers actively maintaining both official and unofficial plugins.Nagios was originally designed to run under Linux, but also runs well on other Unix variants.Nagios is free software licensed under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as published by the Free Software Foundation.

Download nagios 3.1.0(latest)

As a newbie i decided to install the nagios in my ubuntu 9.04 to monitor my own system services & i succedeed in it. The nagios documentation was pretty simple to follow. But i have written a documentation of my own. This documentaion is for those who are lazy(like me :)) to read whole crap given in the official documentaion.Here i just posted the step by step instllation.

N.B: This is the documentaion for Ubuntu. If need to install on other distros goahead and follow this Documentation.
And use sudo in appropriate places.

Lets begin:

1)Nagios need Apache & gdlibrary to work.

sudo apt-get install apache2 (will install apache 2)

sudo apt-get install build-essential

sudo apt-get install libgd2-xpm

2)Create an Account for nagios

sudo useradd -m nagios ( -m is used to create home if donot exist)

passwd nagios

If you are using server edition do the next step , else skip it and goto a).

/usr/sbin/groupadd nagios
/usr/sbin/usermod -G nagios nagios

a)Create a new nagcmd group for allowing external commands to be submitted through web interfacw. Add both nagios & Apache user to the group.

/usr/sbin/groupadd nagcmd

/usr/sbin/usermod -a -G nagcmd nagios

/usr/sbin/usermod -a -G nagcmd www-data

3)Download nagios & Plugins

mkdir ~/downloads
cd ~/downloads

download the nagios & plugins in this folder(downloads). Extract the package.

wget -c


Extract the packages:

tar xzf nagios-3.0.6.tar.gz

cd nagios-3.0.6

Run the Nagios configure script, passing the name of the group you created earlier like so:

./configure --with-command-group=nagcmd

Compile the Nagios source code.

make all
make install
make install-init
make install-config
make install-commandmode

4)Don't start Nagios yet, we have to do some more.

Edit the /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/contacts.cfg config file with your favorite editor and change the email address associated with the nagiosadmin contact definition to the address you'd like to use for receiving alerts.

vi /usr/local/nagios/etc/objects/contacts.cfg

just change the email address you need to receive the alerts.

5)Configure the webinterface.

dont leave the current directory ( ~/downloads/nagios-3.0.6)

make install-webconf

Create a nagiosadmin account for logging into the Nagios web interface. Remember the password you assign to this account - you'll need it later.

htpasswd -c /usr/local/nagios/etc/htpasswd.users nagiosadmin

Restart Apache to make the new settings take effect.

sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 reload (restart)

6)Compile and install nagios plugin

Extract the Nagios plugins..

cd ~/downloads
tar xzf nagios-plugins-1.4.11.tar.gz
cd nagios-plugins-1.4.11
Compile and install the plugins.

./configure --with-nagios-user=nagios --with-nagios-group=nagios
make install

7)login to your web interface(Browser)

You should now be able to access the Nagios web interface at the URL below. You'll be prompted for the username (nagiosadmin) and password you specified earlier.


type the nagiosadmin username & password

Click on the "Service Detail" navbar link to see details of what's being monitored on your local machine. It will take a few minutes for Nagios to check all the services associated with your machine, as the checks are spread out over time

DONE! :)

For detailed instllation documentation refer: here

thanks & regards

Thursday, April 16, 2009

How to create a local Repository for Linux!

Creating a Local Repository of Yum and apt:-

You should have a FTP server or HTTP server to make yum actually working. However since we haven't really gone through setting up FTP or HTTP server, please read-on and understand the process. If you have got vsftpd installed, use that. Otherwise, don't forget to actually set it up yourself later.

Here we will create a local repository for Fedora and CentOS in the easy way.

0. You should have the yum as well as the createrepo package installed first.

1. Create the directory to hold the repository.

mkdir -p /var/ftp/pub/yum-repo/centos/
mkdir -p /var/ftp/pub/yum-repo/fedora/

2. createrepo /var/ftp/pub/yum-repo/centos/ ; createrepo /var/ftp/pub/yum-repo/fedora/ will create the local yum repository by creating a folder named "repodata with four xml files named, filelists.xml.gz, other.xml.gz, primary.xml.gz and repomd.xml

You will have to run the createrepo command each time a rpm is added there.

3. Now in the client's yum.conf, add the repo directly. However in recent versions, the repositories are put in a separate directory called /etc/yum.repos.d/ . If so, put the contents in a filename, with the extension .repo

[humanlinux repo]
name=Fedora Core $releasever - humanlinux Local Repo

Fedora Specific Local Repository:- 

NB : You can create directories inside /var/ftp/pub/yum-repo/fedora/ to look like /var/ftp/pub/yum-repo/fedora/base/8/i386 , /var/ftp/pub/yum-repo/fedora/updates/8/i386 , /var/ftp/pub/yum-repo/fedora/base/9/i386, /var/ftp/pub/yum-repo/fedora/updates/9/i386 and so on.

1) Filling the repos with RPMs:- 

Copy the rpm packages to /var/ftp/pub/yum-repo/fedora/ or /var/ftp/pub/yum-repo/fedora/base/8/i386 from the DVD's Packages directory.


rsync from a rsync supported mirror from the list, like rsync:// and

rsync -avrt rsync:// /var/ftp/pub/yum-repo/fedora/base/8/i386 (remember to have a slash after os/ :-))

2) Updates and regular downloading:- 


rsync the updates from rsync:// to /var/ftp/pub/yum-repo/fedora/updates/8/i386

And then enter the command in a cron job too, to download the updates frequently.

Creating Apt repository:- 

This is done using the apt-mirror tool. Download and install apt-mirror first and then edit the /etc/apt/mirror.list ( to list which packages tree should be mirrored ) which is similar to /etc/apt/sources.list.

apt-mirror will do the rest of the job. Once it is finished, clean up the repositories by running /var/spool/apt-mirror/var/

Wednesday, April 15, 2009

How to sent gmail from/using terminal!

We can sent emails using the terminals. This is an advantage if the internet connection is very slow , since it take much time to load the GUI web interface.
Here are the steps to sent a gmail using/from the terminal.

1)We have to install a package
for Debain : apt-get install ssmtp
gnu/linux : yum install ssmtp

2)edit the file /etc/ssmtp/ssmtp.conf with your favourite editor.
Add the following lines at the end.

AuthUser=youremailaddress(senders adress)
AuthPass=email password

save & quit!

3)To sent an email, type this on the terminal

echo "This is a test mail' | mail -s "hello"

How to turn-on the num lock on every boot-up!

It is frustating to see that the numlock is turned off on very reboot in ubuntu. But it is quite easy to fix it.Just install a tiny package.

sudo apt-get install numlockx

This can:-
1)Control the state of NumLock

2)Provides control over the keyboard number lock from scripts.
3)Particularly useful for use with .xinitrc/.xsession or GDM/XDM/KDM sessions
4)Included is an optional script that can be used to start numlockx automatically
in every X session.


Tuesday, April 14, 2009

How to put .htpasswd protection for a web directory!

Protecting content on the web is something that most savvy users will have to do at one point or another. Whether the content is personal or professional, there comes a time when that content must only be seen by "authorized" eyes. The Apache web server ( that daemon that serves up your marvelous content ) allows a user to configure two files to facilitate this very purpose. Those files are .htaccess and .htpasswd.

The .htaccess file is a simple text file placed in the directory you want the contents of the file to affect. The rules and configuration directives in the .htaccess file will be enforced on whatever directory it is in and all sub-directories as well. In order to password protect content, there are a few directives we must become familiar with. One of these directives in the .htaccess file ( the AuthUserFile directive ) tells the Apache web server where to look to find the username/password pairs.
The .htpasswd file is the second part of the affair. The .htpasswd file is also a simple text file. Instead of directives, the .htpasswd file contains username/password pairs. The password will be stored in encrypted form and the username will be in plaintext.
Apache Server
We have to make some changes on the apache conf file, & rester the service.The procedure is explained below.

Creating an .htaccess file:-
goto the directory you need to password protect. create a file named .htaccess.
add the following lines into it.

AuthName "Hello user!"
AuthType Basic
AuthUserFile /usr/local/humanlinux/.htpasswd (this is the location of the .htpasswd, you have to specify accourdingly)
Require user john (replace the john with desired username)

Save the file.

Creating an .htpasswd file:-

To create a .htpasswd file in /usr/local/humanlinux

htpasswd -c /usr/local/humanlinux/.htpasswd john

Note the '-c' is only used when creating a new .htpasswd file.

To add dave to an existing .htpasswd file located in /usr/local/humanlinux/ the following command will be used.

htpasswd /usr/local/humanlinux/.htpasswd dave

Sample .htpasswd File

Below is a sample .htpasswd file that contains users john and dave


Changes in the apache conf file:-

open the httpd.conf file using your favourote editor.goto the diretory area.

AllowOverride All

you have to specify the correct path for the directory you need to pasword protect.Here i have protected the directory /home/humanlinux/public_html/protected.

Restart the apache service.


  • Make sure that the path specified in AuthUserFile is the correct full path. This is a major cause of problems. If Apache cannot find the .htpasswd file, then all attempts will fail.
  • Make sure the permissions on the .htaccess and .htpasswd files are set so that Apache can read them.
    • chmod 0644 .htaccess
    • chmod 0644 .htpasswd
  • Other issues may be out of your control. Web administrators can lock down Apache so that it ignores all .htaccess files it encounters. This can be achieved with an AllowOverride None directive and option on the ServerRoot/DocumentRoot directories. If this is the case (.htaccess not allowed) you will have to kindly ask your web administrator to allow .htaccess files with authorization directives in your personal web directory. This can be achieved with AllowOverride AuthConfig directive and option.

Saturday, April 11, 2009

How to create an account in cPanel!

cPanel is a linux based web hosting control panel that provides a graphical interface and automation tools designed to simplify the process of hosting a web site. cPanel utilized a 3 tier structure that provides functionality for administrators, resellers, and end-user website owners to control the various aspects website and server administration through a standard web browser.
 In addition to the GUI interface cPanel also has command line and API based access that allows third party software vendors, web hosting organizations, and developers to automate standard system administration processes.

cPanel is designed to function either as a dedicated server or virtual private server and it supports centOS, Red Hat Linux, and FreeBSD.

Application based support includes Apache, PHP, mySQL, Postgres, Perl, Python, and BIND. Email based support includes POP3, IMAP, SMTP services.

Here are the steps to create an account in cPanel.

1)Login to the whm using your root username and password.

2)to view the currently created accounts , click on 'account information'->list accounts.

3)To create, on the right hand side of the page you can see a menu, click on Account Functions -> Create a new account.

4) give the account details.
Domain name :
user name :
password :
email :

The new account has been created. To goto to the cpanel for the next time for a particular account from whm, goto the account information->list account info.

you will be able to find an icon of cPanel next to the on that to navigate to the cpanel.

Friday, April 10, 2009

How to install wordpress!

WordPress is an open source blog publishing application. WordPress is the official successor of b2\cafelog which was developed by Michel Valdrighi. The latest release of WordPress is version 2.7.1, released on 10 February 2009.WordPress has a templating system, which includes widgets that can be rearranged without editing PHP or HTML code, as well as themes that can be installed and switched between. The PHP and HTML code in themes can also be edited for more advanced customizations. WordPress also features integrated link management; a search engine-friendly, clean permalink structure; the ability to assign nested, multiple categories to articles; multiple author capability; and support for tagging of posts and articles. Automatic filters that provide for proper formatting and styling of text in articles (for example, converting regular quotes to smart quotes) are also included. WordPress also supports the Trackback and Pingback standards for displaying links to other sites that have themselves linked to a post or article. Finally, WordPress has a rich plugin architecture which allows users and developers to extend its functionality beyond the features that come as part of the base install.

The instllation of wordpress is quite simple.

1)Download the latest version of wordpress and extract it.

2)Place the WordPress files in the desired location on your web server,using FTP

* If you want to integrate WordPress into the root of your domain (e.g., move or upload all contents of the unzipped WordPress directory (but excluding the directory itself) into the root directory of your web server.
* If you want to have your WordPress installation in its own subdirectory on your web site (e.g., rename the directory wordpress to the name you'd like the subdirectory to have and move or upload it to your web server. For example if you want the WordPress installation in a subdirectory called "blog", you should rename the directory called "wordpress" to "blog" and upload it to the root directory of your web server.

3)Here i am uploading the folder(blog) to public_html, using ftp. Make sure that you upload the folder as a user, not the root.

4)now goto the cpanel,and create a mysql user and a database.please remember the dbname, user and password.

5)then goto filemanager, inside the uploaded folder (blog), edit the file wp-config-sample.php

6)rename the wp-config-sample.php to wp-config.php.

7)edit the wp-config.php and insert the db details of the one which we have created.

Here is the default wp-config-sample.php, you will need to replace the default values in this file with your own specific database settings.

define('DB_NAME', 'putyourdbnamehere'); // The name of the database
define('DB_USER', 'usernamehere'); // Your MySQL username
define('DB_PASSWORD', 'yourpasswordhere'); // ...and password
define('DB_HOST', 'localhost'); // 99% chance you won't need to change this value

usually the DB_HOST must be 'localhost'.if it is not working contact your web hosting provider.

8)Run the WordPress installation script by accessing wp-admin/install.php in your favorite web browser.

* If you installed WordPress in the rootl directory, you should visit:
* If you installed WordPress in its own subdirectory called blog, for example, you should visit:

9)The instllation process will now beging. The screen shots fir the instllation is given below.

10)goto to login for the next time.


Thursday, April 9, 2009

How to re-register the nameservers from!

In computing, a name server (also called nameserver or DNS server) consists of a program or computer server that implements a name-service protocol. It will normally map (i.e. connect) a human-recognisable identifier of a host (for example, the domain name '') to its computer-recognisable identifier (such as the Internet Protocol (IP) address, and vice versa.

We can re-register the nameservers to a different ip's , if we need so. Here are the simple steps to re-register the nameservers from

1)login to

2)click on 'my domains'

3)select your domain name

4)unlock the domain by clicking the lock symbol.

5)then clilck on your domain name

6)navigate to host summary and click on 'edit'

7)insert your new ip assigned for the nameserver,save. you can edit the second nameserver to update the ip.

The 'whois' record will be changed to the new nameserver assigned. You can 'host' to the nameservers to check whether the ip's are updated.

Wednesday, April 8, 2009


OpenDNS offers DNS resolution for consumers and businesses as an alternative to using their Internet service provider's DNS servers. By placing company servers in strategic locations and employing a large cache of the domain names, OpenDNS usually processes queries much more quickly, thereby increasing page retrieval speed. DNS query results are sometimes cached by the local operating system and/or applications, so this speed increase may not be noticeable with every request, but only with requests that are not stored in a local cache.

Other features include a phishing filter, domain blocking and typo correction (for example, typing wikipedia.og instead of By collecting a list of malicious sites, OpenDNS blocks access to these sites when a user tries to access them through their service. OpenDNS recently launched Phishtank, where users around the world can submit and review suspected phishing sites.

OpenDNS is not, as its name might seem to imply, open source software.

OpenDNS earns a portion of its revenue by resolving a domain name to an OpenDNS server when the name is not otherwise defined in DNS. This has the effect that if a user types a nonexistent name in a URL in a web browser, the user sees an OpenDNS search page. Advertisers pay OpenDNS to have advertisements for their sites on this page. While this behavior is similar to VeriSign's previous Site Finder or the redirects many ISP's are placing on their own DNS servers, OpenDNS states that it is not the same, as OpenDNS is purely an opt-in service (compared to Site Finder's effect on the entire Internet, as VeriSign is an authoritative registry operator) and that the advertising revenue pays for the customized DNS service. Note that web browsers are not the only users of DNS resolution service and for any other user, this way of resolving names is at best useless, and may be worse than replying that the name does not exist, as is normal.

According to OpenDNS, it may in the future provide additional services that run on top of its enhanced DNS service, and may charge money for some of them.

One example of such an added service was the company's April 22, 2007 launch of "shortcuts", letting users make custom DNS mappings, such as mapping "mail" to "". This feature launch was covered by a large number of publications, including the New York Times, Wired, and PC World.

On May 13, 2007, OpenDNS launched a new domain blocking service which provides the ability to block/filter web sites visited based upon categories. This provides for corporate, educational and parental control over the type of sites that are deemed appropriate by the networks owner. On August 9, 2007 OpenDNS added the ability to override the filter through individually managed blacklists and whitelists. On February 20, 2008 in an effort to make their domain block list current with new website additions OpenDNS changed from a closed list of blocked domains to a community driven list whereby individual OpenDNS subscribers can suggest sites for blocking. If a sufficient number of other subscribers concur with the categorization of the site it is added to the appropriate category for blocking. The threshold of votes required to add a new site to the filter has not been disclosed. Over 50 categories now exist for categorizing websites providing for fine grained control over web browsing habits.

visit the official site:-

the details to setup openDNS is provided in the website.

Friday, April 3, 2009

How to set the Google repository for gnu/Linux.

Google's Linux software repositories make it easier to download and stay up-to-date with current releases of Google Linux applications.First, we have to use rpm to install the key. Here are the steps to do!

Command line configuration for RPM.

On an RPM-based system (Fedora, SUSE, Mandriva, RHEL, etc.), download the key and then use rpm to install it.

Run these commands as root:

1) wget
2) rpm --import

You can verify the key installation by running:

3) rpm -qi gpg-pubkey-7fac5991-4615767f

To manually verify an RPM package, you can run the command:

4) rpm --checksig -v packagename.rpm

Command line configuration for YUM

As root, create a file 'google.repo' in /etc/yum.repos.d/ and add the following lines to it.

name=Google - i386

If your .repo file contains gpgcheck=1, signatures will automatically be verified during installation.

If you are running a 64-bit distribution, you should also add the x86_64 repository, which will provide you with native 64-bit versions of some of google's software:

name=Google - x86_64

You can then use yum as usual, e.g.

yum install picasa
yum install desktop-backgrounds-basic

Faster YUM search!

Yum fastest mirror plugin (yum-plugin-fastestmirror) allow yum to select the closest and freshest mirror around you for your yum update. Once the yum fastest mirror plugin is activated, whenever you perform yum update or install, you will get a better connection. As yum will search the mirror based on your IP thru the GeoIP system. Yum select the fastest mirror based on:-

1. The connecting location of the client.
2. The current freshness/staleness of the mirrors for that region.

yum fastest mirror plugin (yum-plugin-fastestmirror) sound interesting? Want to try?
To install yum fastest mirror plugin (yum-plugin-fastestmirror) you can use this command:-

yum install yum-plugin-fastestmirror
yum install yum-fastestmirror

Once the installation completed, you have to edit the file /etc/yum.conf and add the following line to the file:


If it is already there , no need to add!

Done. you have just installed yum fastest mirror plugin.
if you perform yum install or yum update now,
you will notice there is a new line added like below

Loading “fastestmirror” plugin
Setting up Install Process
Setting up repositories

Happy yumming!

Wednesday, April 1, 2009

How to transfer website between two VPS's!

How to transfer a Website from one to cPanel VPS to Another cPanel VPS?

lets say you find a new Hosting Provider however they don’t support you in transferring your old data or website from your Old VPS here is what you need to do.

First you have to make sure that you have cPanel installed on both the New and the Old VPS. Then only with the click of a few buttons you can transfer your complete website to your New VPS. Hope both have the cPanel installed!

1)Login to your Old VPS with the root username and password for e.g: or

Type the user name & password! ,u have to :) !
username - your username
password- your password

2)Go to Backup’s option in the cPanel Menu and then click on the “Download or Generate a Full Backup” option.

Then under Generate a Full Backup option find the Backup Destination and select the Home Directory

under the option Enter Email Address: enter your email address.

Then click on the generate backup button.

Once the back up is generated you will receive a notification on your email address specified earlier.

3)Then go to the File Manager option on your cPanel and there go to the Home Directory >> /home/username and here you will find the backup that was just generated for you in the following format “backup-11.03.2008_18-06-35_username.tar.gz”

4)Select the backup file and Move it to the public_html directory and then click on the public_html and you will see the backup there.

5)Now change the file permission for the Backup file to 644.

6)Now once this is done login to the New VPS and go to the path where the backup is supposed to be downloaded.

7)Now to get the backup from the old server use the “wget” command in the following way.

wget -c http://the pld VPS ip/~old vps username/backup-11.03.2008_18-06-35_username.tar.gz

8)Then once this is done all you need to do is restore the backup Folder.

To restore the backup,type :-

/scripts/restorepkg --force username

The account restoration process will begin, this will take a long time & the backup process will also consumes a long time.

mail me @